Flours for Baking
Bob's Red Mill, Stone Ground
want to use a white flour with higher protein, how do I adjust the recipe?
A: We wrote the original white-flour
Master Recipe in our first book with
typical all-purpose white flour in mind (such as, Gold Medal) which has a protein content of
about 9.8-10.5%. The following flours have a greater protein content and will require you to
add more water to dough that
is entirely made from these white flours. You don’t need all that extra water
if white flour only part of the loaf’s flour mixture.
Gold Medal Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (10.5 percent protein).
Pillsbury Unbleached Enriched All-Purpose Flour is comparable.
Gold Medal Better for Bread 12.5% protein (add approximately 1/3 cup extra water to the full
Canadian all-purpose flour, most brands: add
approximately 1/4 cup extra water to the full recipe
Dakota Maid All-Purpose: add approximately 1/4 cup extra water to the full recipe
King Arthur All-Purpose, 11.7% protein
(add approximately 1/4 cup extra water to the full recipe).
King Arthur Bread Flour 12.7% protein
(add approximately 1/3 cup extra water to the full recipe)
Most flour labeled as “bread flour” is 12-13% protein (add approximately 1/3 cup extra water
to the full recipe). In Europe, this flour is labeled as “strong flour.” If a
flour is labeled as “high-gluten” it’s probably 14-15% protein (add approximately 1/2 cup
extra water to the full recipe).
Q: What should the “hydration” of the dough be?
A: Again, we tried to avoid confusing professional language in the book, but several people
have asked about bakers percentages and hydration levels for
white flour. The hydration needed for dough storage will vary with to the type of
flour you are using. “Hydration,” when the term is used by professional bakers, means
the ratio of the water weight to the flour weight, expresed as a percentage. High
protein flours absorb much more water and will require you to add more water. Here are the
hydration levels we’ve used, but remember, this applies to dough made from white
flours(whole grain is a different story, requiring higher levels of hydration):
When using most all-purpose flours (eg., Gold Medal): 75% hydration
When using Gold Medal Better for Bread: 83% hydration
When using King Arthur all-purpose: 81% hydration
When using King Arthur bread flour: 83% hydration
When using most bread flours: 83% hydration
When using most high-gluten flours: 85% hydration