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Kitchen Substitutes


In a pinch? Here are many ways you can substitute on item for another.

Sour Milk - Fresh Milk

For 1 cup, place 1 tbsp lemon juice or distilled white vinegar in
bottom of a measuring cup. Add enough milk to make 1 cup. Stir and
let mixture curdle, about 5 minutes.

Cocoa – Chocolate

One square (1 ounce) of chocolate equals 3 tbsp. of cocoa and one
tbsp. of shortening.

Brown Sugar

One cup firmly packed brown sugar equals 1 cup granulated sugar plus
1 tbsp. of molasses


One cup molasses equals 3/4-cup sugar. In baking, decrease liquid by
1/4 cup for each cup of molasses. Omit any baking powder and add 1/2
tsp. of baking soda.

Baking Powder

One tsp. of baking powder equals 1/4 tsp. of baking soda plus 3/8
tsp. cream of tartar.

Powdered Milk - Fresh Milk

One cup fresh milk equals four tbsp. powdered milk and one cup of
water. When powdered milk is to be used, it is convenient to combine
it with flour and other dry ingredients and then add required
quantity of water at the point where the use of fresh milk is called

Pan size

The pan should be 1 or 2 inches high and just large enough for the meat. If it is too high, the meat will steam rather than roast.

If meat is being cooked it is generally basted to prevent drying, starting half way through the cooking process.

Roast item until internal temperature is 5 to 10 degrees below desired temperature. After item is removed from oven, let rest for 20 minutes or so, depending on the size. During this time, the internal temperature will rise 5 to 10 degrees and the juices will distribute more evenly.

Before roasting, the food should be at room temperature so cooking is done evenly.

Halfway through roasting turn the pan in the oven so the item cooks evenly. Ovens have hotspots and turning the pan mitigates this effect.
Deglaze the pan for heavenly gravy.

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